A HEPA fan filter unit (FFU) is a crucial component of every cleanroom environment. Making the correct decision as to which type of FFU is the most appropriate for your application is not something to simply gloss over. There are two main categories of motorized fan filter units: permanent split capacitors (PSC) and electronically commutated motors (ECM). Both types of fan filter modules provide a perfunctory standard for any cleanroom, but differ by way of efficiency, durability and cost. PSC systems save you money upfront and are ideal for small, consistent projects. However, when considering longer endeavors, especially those with ever-changing circumstances, the ECM will pay for itself with energy savings. For instance, in California at an average of 14.47 cents per kilowatt hour, you would make the difference between the higher upfront costs of the ECM over the PSC bac
A properly maintained air filter is a crucial piece of equipment in the fight against the SARS-CoV-2 virus, the cause of the illness COVID-19. Both HEPA filters and ULPA filters reduce the number of microscopic particles in the air, which can keep air safe to breathe in places it’s needed most. Thorough filtration may seem trivial under better circumstances. But with illness trickling through unseen spaces, it’s important to take reasonable precautions and prepare for the potential risk.
COVID-19 also meets the qualifications for being airborne. Coughing, sneezing, talking and even breathing all cause the release of respiratory droplets, which can carry the illness if they come from an infected individual.
The last thing you need is your lab equipment rusting out on you. When considering your specific application needs for new stainless steel equipment, a recurring question in the market remains—what’s the difference between 304 and 316? When should you consider 316? In scenarios demanding the utmost vigilance, you may discover you require 316L stainless steel.
304 Stainless steel is composed of 18% chromium and 8% nickel. 316 Stainless steel is made up of chromium and nickel at 16% and 10% respectively, but also includes molybdenum—a silvery-white metal that’s highly resistant to corrosion.
316L Stainless steel contains the same corrosion-resistant materials as 316, but includes the added benefit of a lower carbon content—eliminating the opportunity for excessive metallic contamination and making cracking less likely. Both 316 and 316L are able to withstand chlorides and chlorinated solutions, such as Spor-Klenz® and Isopropyl Acetate
Air showers are chambers or tunnels used to decontaminate personnel via air jets as they enter or exit a cleanroom. By using pressurized jet nozzle air streams, air showers blow contaminating particles away from people or items that enter, then filter pollutants and redirect the clean air out of the chamber. The showers are placed at the entrances of cleanrooms or other controlled environments to secure the biggest potential containment breach, minimizing the danger to workers or products.
Stringent cleanliness requirements make air showers a standa
Terra Universal will certify its cleanrooms to guarantee “as built” compliance with cleanliness standards. What matters, though, is how the cleanroom performs in real world applications—in your application, with your personnel and processing equipment.
Careful consideration of these operating conditions will help you select the configuration that meets your requirements and fits your budget!
The cleanest modular cleanroom incorporates filter/fan units (FFUs) in every 2' x 4' (610 mm x 1219 mm) ceiling bay. This near-100% ceiling coverage provides a laminar flow of filtered air to quickly remove contaminants from the cleanroom, meeting ISO 3 or ISO 4 (Federal Standard 209(E) Class 1 or Class 10) environments (depending on the filter types selected, HEPA or ULPA).
Of course, 100% ceiling coverage requires substantial investme
Compared to acrylic, static-dissipative PVC offers three benefits that reduce operating expenses and drive down overall ownership cost of a clean room, glove box, hood, desiccator, or other enclosure.
Acrylic is a prolific static generator. The back-and-forth motion of wiping an acrylic surface creates positive and negative surface charges that attract and hold small particles.
The resulting static cling makes it difficult to remove contaminants from the charged surfaces without the use of ionizing equipment or frequent cleaning with special anti-static solutions. Variations in the surface charges can lead to unpredictabl
Biological Safety Level (BSL) is a biocontainment designation system with requirements intended to protect personnel from potentially harmful pathogenic exposure in a research or manufacturing environment.
The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) specifies four broad Biological Safety Levels, each of which corresponds to a level of exposure danger and a set of design features and operational protocol. Each increasing level builds on the previous level(s):
Terra Universal is the leading expert in the design and fabrication of critical-environment applications. We offer a complete range of equipment, furnishing and supplies for cleanrooms and laboratories. The following are the rigorous standards to which Terra Universal adheres.
Before global cleanroom classifications and standards were adopted by the International Standards Organization (ISO), the U.S. General Service Administration’s standards (known as FS209E) were applied virtually worldwide. However, as the need for international standards grew, the ISO established a technical committee and several working groups to delineate its own set of standards.
FS209E contains six classes, while the ISO 14644-1 classification system adds two cleaner standards and one dirtier standard (see chart below). The "cleanest" cleanroom in FS209E is referred to as Class 1; the "dirtiest" cleanroom is a
Cleanrooms are a large investment, putting a lot of responsibility and pressure on the owner and project engineers. As with any large investment, the aspiration is to formulate the perfect design the first time. While those expectations may be high, facilities can reduce time and expenses with careful planning and strict project management practices. There are also many considerations to make in the cleanroom’s pre-planning stage. Such as?
The first step in planning a cleanroom is to concretely identify the primary goals and applications. Often this depends on the industry for which the cleanroom will be used. There are several questions to answer: How will the cleanroom be used? What ISO cleanliness regulations must be met? What equipment is needed (e.g. hoods, gloveboxes, storage cabinets or packaging machinery)? What is the maximum number of workers that will be inside the room at peak time? A regu
Pharmacy compounders have a lot of factors to consider when making the decision to go into the business of mixing individual prescriptions, particularly those considered “hazardous.” It can be a lucrative operation, but one which is closely overseen. For good reason, though: mistakes in the recent past have taught us that sloppy procedures, partly resulting from a lack of regulations, can have deadly consequences.
Once you’ve make the commitment to move forward with your compounding pharmacy business model, you have to understand your responsibilities (and the associated costs) regarding equipment and furnishings. What used to be true for minimum “engineering controls” is no longer good enough, and regulators will make sure that pharmacies comply.
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