Researchers employ various washing and sterilization methods. Autoclaving involves a pressure chamber producing steam from 121°C or 134°C. Autoclaves or stand-alone labware washers eliminate microorganisms on labware pipettes, rotors and other lab tools. For low temperature sterilization biological and temperature indicators measure instrument sterility. Modular and stand-alone water treatment systems pre-treat and purify water used in steam sterilizers. UV-C irradiation neutralizes microorganisms on work surfaces, transparent objects, biosafety cabinets, HEPA filters and cleanrooms. Infrared sterilization, commonly used on heat-sensitive lab instruments, is another sanitizing option. For more stringent applications, vaporized hydrogen peroxide sterilization can be used in cleanrooms and glove box isolators containing biological agents and category III/IV pathogens. Cleaning systems including ultrasonic baths, dry ice, carbon dioxide, steam and plasma are other options for labs and cleanrooms to disinfect substrates and components.