Most hoods designed for specialty applications are derived from standard laboratory configurations (e.g. laminar flow and fume hoods) adapted to specific requirements.
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a common technique used in molecular biology to exponentially amplify a target region of DNA or RNA. PCR can turn a single piece of DNA into more than a million pieces in the matter of hours. Unfortunately, a single piece of contaminating DNA can also be amplified, making it extremely important that researchers work within a sterilized area that prevents cross contamination of samples.
PCR workstations were designed to minimize this problem. Adapted from laminar flow hoods, PCR workstations provide HEPA-filtered, sterile air within the hood. These hoods are outfitted with UV-C germicidal lights to disinfect the work surface when the hood is not in use. The lights are also placed on a timer to reduce the risk of UV exposure. In addition to its germicidal properties, UV-C light also causes breaks in strands of DNA that prevent the DNA from being amplified during PCR. Therefore, the UV-C light also serves to prevent carry-over contamination from previous experiments.
Explosion-proof hoods are a variation of either the laminar flow or exhaust fume hood, designed for work involving potentially flammable material. The conventional motor of the hood is replaced by an NEC Division I-rated non-sparking motor, mounted in a cast-iron, explosion-proof housing. In addition, the hood features an explosion-proof light, and all wiring is encased in filled rigid conduit.
These hoods bear an NEC sub-rating: Division I, Class 1 indicates suitability for use where flammable materials are generally present, and Division I, Class 2 indicates suitability for use when such materials are only intermittently present.
Weighing dry powder chemicals is a routine laboratory task. Weighing procedures frequently result in some of the powder becoming airborne irritants – and potentially toxic threats – to lab personnel. Balance enclosures minimize this danger.
They are essentially ductless fume hoods with a few minor modifications. These negative pressure enclosures direct air from outside the hood through a HEPA filtration system before it is returned to the room. The HEPA filtration system is 99.99% effective in removing particles as small as 0.3 microns in diameter from the air, virtually eliminating the risk of personnel exposure. The front sash of the balance enclosure opens upward, allowing easy transfer of balances into and out of the enclosure.
These enclosures are essentially balance enclosures that use an ULPA filter, which is 99.995% efficient in removing particles as small as 0.12 microns, to contain the much smaller particles generated during nanomaterial processing.
Laboratory hoods serve a number of critical purposes in the lab environment.
Such hoods, often called laminar flow workstations or clean benches, use a flow of HEPA-filtered air to prevent influx of viable and non-viable particles into the enclosure and to sweep away any contaminants generated by the work process.
For fume containment, laboratory fume hoods use a ducted ventilation system that maintains negative pressure. Where ducting is impractical, ductless hoods are also available for removal of non-hazardous contaminants (fumes or particles), using either HEPA or activated carbon filters.
Biological safety cabinets combine aspects of both hood types: a laminar flow of micro-filtered air and negative-pressure containment of bio-hazard fumes.
Laminar flow hoods (also called laminar flow clean benches) force air through a HEPA or ULPA filter to create a clean work area free of nearly all contaminating particulates, including bacteria, mold spores and many viruses. These hoods use a vertical or horizontal airflow design. Both provide excellent protection of products from particulates and cross-contamination, but do not protect the operator or environment.
So why choose one over the other? Vertical laminar flow hoods (VLF Hoods) require less floor space, but more overhead clearance. In addition, a sash at the front of the VLF hood provides a barrier between air exiting the hood and the operator’s face. VLF hoods create turbulent air flow when air strikes the work surface, requiring sterile work to be performed above the work surface.
HLF hoods minimize air turbulence (and particle backflow) on the work surface except where equipment disrupts the horizontal airflow. However, they direct the airflow directly at the operator’s face and require more depth to accommodate placement of the fan filter unit at the rear of the hood.
Laboratory fume hoods draw air from the environment through the opening of the hood, allowing environmental contaminants into the work area. Thus, lab fume hoods do not offer a sterile environment or product protection. Instead, chemical fume hoods are designed to protect the operator from dangerous or irritating fumes and powders generated from work performed inside the hood.
In ducted fume hoods and canopy fume hoods, air passes out of the hood through a duct leading to an in-house ventilation system that contains and/or neutralizes hazardous materials.
In ductless fume hoods, fans draw exhaust air through a series of filters that remove irritating substances before release back into the room. Since these filters are not 100% efficient in removing all substances, ductless fume hoods are not advised in the presence of biohazards; however, they provide a convenient, cost-effective solution for operations involving irritating but non-hazardous fumes in facilities where an in-house HVAC system cannot be accessed.
Biological Safety cabinets combine design aspects of both laminar flow and fume hoods. Filtered air is directed downward onto the work surface and then travels into a plenum through openings on the front and sides of the hood. Depending on the classification of the biosafety hood, some percentage of air is recirculated through a HEPA filter while the rest is directed out of the hood through an exhaust system. Thus, biosafety cabinets offer operator, environmental and product protection.
These laboratory safety cabinets (sometimes called IV hoods or compounding hoods) are ideal when preparing sterile medications such as chemotherapeutic agents that may pose a risk to the operator.
When it comes to working with hazardous or potentially infectious material, protecting personnel must be the primary concern. However, offering personnel protection does not have to come at the cost of risking product integrity. Class II BSCs provide protection to both personnel and product simultaneously. They maintain an ISO class 5 clean work area for product manipulation, while ensuring that exhaust air is filtered and ducted out of the environment. Thus, a class II BSC is the ideal solution when working with moderately hazardous material and both personnel and product safety are required.